MEDICAL ROBOTS

     Prompt development of robotics and computer technologies opens new possibilities in many spheres of activity of people, including medicine. If to analyze the chronology of messages on new developments of robots it is possible to notice that during the period of 2005-2010 years the sharp jump of messages on projects on creation of medical robots in the majority of the leading countries was observed. The future in which in hospitals the robots as well as numerous engineers on their technical support work becomes more and more real. On well-aimed expression of American engineer and businessman D.Engelbergera, who has received a title of "the Father of a robotics», hospitals is an ideal place and ideal environment for the use of robots. Robots, fortunately, are not capable yet to replace the person completely in the foreseeable future, especially in medicine, however to be the courier within one hospital, to interview and collect complaints from patients, to help them to move within clinics robots can do already today. Robots-dummies, robots-couriers, robots-hospital attendants are already an actually reality. Accordingly, clinics should be ready to fast and mass occurrence of robots in hospitals’ corridors, chambers with patients and procedural offices. Therefore, one of problems which the Laboratory puts in front of itself is the problem of studying of potential possibility and efficiency of the use of robots in MONIKI and at practical public health services of Moscow Region in the total. On this topic it is possible to familiarize with our first literary review abstract here (Russian journal "Technologii zjivyh sistem", v.7, No. 4, 2010. - pp. 3-14). Working on that we have found out the absence of the convenient and simple definition of the term "medical robot". So, we have formulated one in the review. 

     During the period of 2012-2016 within the RFBR Projects No.12-08-00415a and 14-08-001127а our laboratory has carried out the fundamental theoretical research on the development of scientific and engineering bases of functioning of the mobile autonomous service medical robots (SMR) in clinics. The first expert assessment of perspective role functions of SMR in clinics was received on the basis of which the generalized concept of functioning of SMR in clinics was formulated. The thesis about the existence of a limited set of elementary algorithms composing any situational behavior of SMR was put forward, theoretically reasoned and checked experimentally. The paradigm of the object-oriented description of habitat of SMR in clinic was formulated and proved. The set of variables of habitat in clinic was investigated. The thesis about defining role of sense organs of the robot in formation of a set of variables of habitat as well as a set of variables of the internal environment of the robot was formulated. The formal technical description of objective functions of appointment, self-preservation and support objective functions of SMR was developed. The hierarchy was investigated and priorities of the objective functions of SMR were proved. The set of significant and insignificant variables for the objective functions of SMR was investigated. The generalized block-diagram of the considered SMR was developed and the general approach to the methodology and stages of their design were formulated. The first version of the list of specialized medico-technical requirements to SMR was developed and proved. The executed research on the fundamental statement and systemic coverage of a problem of creation of scientific and engineering bases of the theory of SMR advances similar approaches of other authors, as in Russia, and abroad. Several parts of our preliminary results of the RFBR Projects was already reported in 2012 at the V-th Troitsk Conference on medical physics ("TCMP-5") and at the X-th Scientific Conference «Physics and Radioelectronics in medicine and ecology» ("PREME’2012"), in a frame of 4-th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Bio-technology (ICBEB'2015) in 2015 in China, in 9th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies (BIOSTEC 2016). Full required technical and intellectual abilities for autonomous mobile service medical robots, which was formulated during the Projects, was published in 2018 in "Advances in Robotics Research" (see here). The other part is preparing for publication.

     On the other hand, modern availability and development of methods of computer simulations, the last successes in neurobiology in studying of topography of neural communications and neurotransmissions in alive organisms, all of these allow us to tell most seriously about possibility of formulating of systemic problems of neurobiology (or, already, more precisely - of neurobiophysics) on studying of biophysical mechanisms of the higher nervous activity and cogitative work of the men's and animals' brain. And in applications to medical problems, accordingly, it concerns the biophysical mechanisms of infringements of normal work and the reasons of occurrence of diseases of a brain of the person and animals. Today, actually, there is not an effective neurophysiologic theory of cogitative work of a brain. Therefore the researches on searching of ways of creation of such theory are an actual and perspective problem of a fundamental science. This problem is also today in a sight of our Laboratory (see the section "Neurophysics and neurophysiology", as well).